Marking an important step in the development of next-generation hard drive technology, Western Digital has formally announced the company’s first hard drives based on energy-assisted magnetic recording. Starting things off with capacities of 16 TB and 18 TB, the Ultrastar DC HC550 HDDs are designed to offer consistent performance at the highest (non-SMR) capacities yet. And, with commercial sales expected to start in 2020, WD is now in a position to become the first vendor in the industry to ship a next-generation EAMR hard drive.

18 TB Sans SMR

The Western Digital Ultrastar DC HC550 3.5-inch hard drive relies on the company’s 6th Generation helium-filled HelioSeal platform with two key improvements: the platform features nine platters (both for 16 TB and 18 TB versions), and they using what WD is calling an energy-assisted magnetic recording technology (EAMR). The latter has enabled Western Digital to build 2 TB platters without using shingled magnetic recording (SMR).

Since we are dealing with a brand-new platform, the Ultrastar DC HC550 also includes several other innovations, such as a new mechanical design. Being enterprise hard drives, the new platform features a top and bottom attached motor (with a 7200 RPM spindle speed), top and bottom attached disk clamps, RVFF sensors, humidity sensors, and other ways to boost reliability and ensure consistent performance. Like other datacenter-grade hard drives, the Ultrastar DC HC550 HDDs are rated for a 550 TB/annual workload, a 2.5 million hours MTBF, and are covered by a five-year limited warranty.


The research and development efforts of the hard drive manufacturers to produce ever-denser storage technology has been well documented. Western Digital, Seagate, and others have been looking at technologies based around temporarily altering the coercivity of the recording media, which is accomplished by applying (additional) energy to a platter while writing. The end result of these efforts has been the development of techniques such as heating the platters (HAMR) or using microwaves on them (MAMR), both of which allow a hard drive head to write smaller sectors. With their similar-yet-different underpinnings, this has lead to the catch-all term Energy-Assissted Magnetic Recording (EAMR) to describe these techniques.

Being a large corporation, Western Digital does not put all of its eggs into one basket, and as a result has been researching several EAMR technologies. This includes HAMR, MAMR, bit-patterned media (BPM), heated-dot magnetic recording (HDMR, BPM+HAMR) and even more advanced technologies.

At some point in 2017, the company seemed to settle on MAMR, announcing a plan to produce MAMR-based HDDs for high-capacity applications. Still, while the company focused on MAMR and, presumably for competitive reasons was publicly downplaying HAMR for a while, WD did not really stop investing in it.

Ultimately, having designed at least two EAMR technologies, Western Digital can now use either of them. Unfortunately, for those competitive (and to some degree political) reasons as before, the manufacturer also doesn't really want to disclose which of those technologies it's using. So while the new Ultrastar DC HC550 HDDs are using some form of an EAMR technology, WD isn't saying whether it's HAMR or MAMR.

As things stand, the only thing that the company has said on the matter is telling that the new drivers do not use a spin-torque oscillator, which is a key element of Western Digital's MAMR technology.

Here is an official statement from Western Digital:

“The 18 TB Ultrastar DC HC550 is the first HDD in the industry using energy assisted recording technology. As part of our MAMR development, we have discovered a variety of energy assisted techniques that boost areal density. For competitive reasons, we are not disclosing specific details about which energy assist technologies are used in each drive.”

With MAMR apparently eliminated, it would seem that WD is using a form of HAMR for the new drives. However at least for the time being, it's not something the company is willing to disclose.

IOPS-per-TB Challenge

Ultimately, whether HAMR or MAMR, the end result is that WD's EAMR tech has allowed them to increase their drive platter density and resulting drive capacities. Density improvements are always particularly welcome, as it should allow the HC550 to offer higher sequential performance than existing 7200 RPM hard drives. However, since the new storage devices feature a single actuator that enables around 80 IOPS random reads, IOPS-per-TB performance of the new units will be lower when compared to currently available high-capacity 10 – 14 TB HDDs (think 4 IOPS-per-TB vs. 5.7 – 8 IOPS-per-TB) and will require operators of large datacenters to tune their hardware and software to guarantee their customers appropriate QoS.

Unlike Westen Digital’s flagship 20 TB shingled magnetic recording (SMR) hard drive for cold storage applications, the company’s 16 TB and 18 TB nearly HDDs use energy-assisted conventional magnetic recording (CMR), which ensures predictable performance both for random read and write operations. As a result, while the Ultrastar DC 650 SMR HDD will be available only to select customers that can mitigate peculiarities of SMR, the Ultrastar DC 550 hard drives will be available to all clients that are satisfied with their IOPS-per-TB performance and will have qualified them in their datacenters.

Samples & Availability

Western Digital will ship samples of its EAMR-based Ultrastar DC HC550 16 TB and 18 TB hard drives to clients late this year and plans to initiate their volume ramp in 2020. One additional thing to note about the 16 TB EAMR-enabled HDDs is that these drives will likely be used primarily for technology validation, as there are commercial 16 TB CMR+TDMR available today that do not need extensive tests by operators of datacenters.

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Source: Western Digital



View All Comments

  • linuxgeex - Friday, September 20, 2019 - link

    Oh hell yes. Consumer NVMe drives are blowing the socks off even the fastest enterprise drives from a year ago. We can't get motherboards with enough PCIe sockets to carry them, and even if we could, they'd saturate the CPU's busses. Speed isn't the issue, at all. Capacity is. Reply
  • azfacea - Thursday, September 19, 2019 - link

    HERE mx300 750 GB MSRP = 200 USD
    I just looked on amazon mx500 2 TB 220 USD

    almost same price for 2TB vs 750 GB
  • npz - Thursday, September 19, 2019 - link

    As I mentioned below, why do you keep using low end SSDs and then extrapolating price per GB to higher storage densities when it is NOT comparable? The ONLY existing high density SSDs to replace the whole TB **per drive** are the enterprise SSDs and your metric is completely, utterly, totally useless Reply
  • azfacea - Thursday, September 19, 2019 - link

    you've completely lost it havent you ? i compare a mid range consumer ssd to another midrange from a couple years later to show the massive price improvement. u do realize amazon makes their own controllers in a lot of cases ? just deaf are you ? you cant compare the best in class enterprise ssd to cold storage trash from the toilet Reply
  • close - Thursday, September 19, 2019 - link

    @azfacea: "i compare a mid range consumer ssd"

    Which is exactly what you've been told repeatedly and you shrug it off: Comparing 1-2TB consumer SSDs to figure out a trend is completely irrelevant for the discussion. If you indeed have a point then I'm sure that comparing double digit TB capacity enterprise SSDs will show the same trend. So feel free...
  • rahvin - Thursday, September 19, 2019 - link

    Most of the price drop you are attributing to other factors was because NAND was oversupplied into the market. Manufacturers (all of them) have cut back on existing lines and have canceled plans for new lines and probably by next year prices will be increasing.

    What you see in the flash market right now is competition at work and a miscalculation by the manufacturers that broke the supply/demand curve with a big oversupply. This happened because of the tablet boom, manufactures saw all these tablets being sold and assumed the trend would continue or even accelerate and that consumers would buy a new one every year like phones, installing significant numbers of new production lines. Then once everyone had bought a tablet the market cratered. This resulted in a massive oversupply of NAND into the market like the memory oversupply in the 2010's that cratered the RAM market prices for a couple years.

    And just like the RAM market the manufacturers have adjusted adjusted production. I wouldn't be surprised at this point if the NAND production cuts don't do the same thing to the market that the RAM production cuts did (it resulted in the cost of RAM tripling over several years).

    In otherwords, what you are attributing to a trend is in fact an accident of supply and demand and highly unlikely to remain the way it is.
  • npz - Thursday, September 19, 2019 - link

    Yeah, except that price improvement NEVER goes to the higher densities, which is what I keep trying to tell you. You can prove that from a few years, prove that right now and prove that again in the future. Reply
  • AdhesiveTeflon - Thursday, September 19, 2019 - link

    Well he keeps comparing consumer SSDs to prove his point and not enterprise SSDs/HDDs like this whole article is talking about. Reply
  • ksec - Thursday, September 19, 2019 - link

    >A new storage medium no doubt has the potential to overtake hard drives in cost per bit. I just don't think it will be NAND which is already reaching or has reached the end of several technological paths of progress in the near past and future.

    Um? There is a very clear Roadmap with stacking, right now there is no reason why we cant do 1024 layers if not higher, the only issue is yield. There is also EUV NAND which is on the list of improvement, along with dozens of other technical improvement in the pipeline which will all improves Fab Capacity, Density and cost.

    The TCO calculation also isn't just simply Cost / TB, you will need to factor in speed ( the amount of data increases while speed hasn't in HDD needs to more HDD require to balance I/O ) , power usage and space.

    HDD wont die, but other than Cold storage, NAND is replacing HDD in more places than ever.
  • azfacea - Thursday, September 19, 2019 - link

    "HDD wont die, but other than Cold storage, ...."

    but they will, if they are only limited to cold storage and nothing else. do you think you can sustain the massive operations WD and Seagate have + plus many many part suppliers, because Amazon glacier is still interested ? not a chance.

    ppl said optical won't die when thumb drive and wifi showed up, because "they still had some nice things about them"

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